2023 Spanish Regional Tax Competitiveness Index

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2023 Spanish Regional Tax Competitiveness Index


Beneath is an excerpt of the 2023 Spanish Regional Tax Competitiveness Index (RTCI), a latest report printed in collaboration with Fundación para el Avance de la LibertadClick on the hyperlink above to obtain the total report in Spanish.

Government Abstract

The Regional TaxA tax is a compulsory fee or cost collected by native, state, and nationwide governments from people or companies to cowl the prices of basic authorities companies, items, and actions.
Competitiveness Index
(RTCI) for Spain allows policymakers, companies, and taxpayers to measure and consider their areas’ tax programs. This Index has been designed to investigate how properly areas construction their tax system and serves as a street map for policymakers to reform their tax programs by making their areas extra aggressive and engaging for entrepreneurs and residents.

The Index compares the 19 Spanish areas on greater than 60 variables in 5 main areas of taxation: particular person earnings taxA person earnings tax (or private earnings tax) is levied on the wages, salaries, investments, or different types of earnings a person or family earns. The U.S. imposes a progressive earnings tax the place charges enhance with earnings. The Federal Revenue Tax was established in 1913 with the ratification of the sixteenth Modification. Although barely 100 years previous, particular person earnings taxes are the largest supply of tax income within the U.S.
, wealth taxA wealth tax is imposed on a person’s internet wealth, or the market worth of their complete owned belongings minus liabilities. A wealth tax may be narrowly or broadly outlined, and relying on the definition of wealth, the bottom for a wealth tax can fluctuate.
, inheritance taxAn inheritance tax is levied upon a person’s property at demise or upon the belongings transferred from the decedent’s property to their heirs. In contrast to property taxes, inheritance tax exemptions apply to the dimensions of the reward fairly than the dimensions of the property.
, switch taxes and stamp duties, and different regional taxes, combining the outcomes to generate a ultimate rating. The Index offers a easy metric to evaluate the entire tax system and determine strengths and weaknesses. The result’s a rating that may be in contrast with these of different areas.

The 5 greatest areas on this 12 months’s Index are:

  1. Neighborhood of Madrid
  2. Alava
  3. Biscay
  4. Guipuzcoa
  5. Andalusia

What distinguishes the highest 5 areas from the remaining is their excessive rating in every of the 5 parts of the Index. Not one of the prime 5 areas are among the many 5 lowest-ranked areas in any of the 5 separate parts of the Index.


Madrid has undertaken necessary earnings tax reforms that reinforce its prime rating. Following the 2022 RTCI suggestions, Madrid listed its earnings tax to inflationInflation is when the overall value of products and companies will increase throughout the financial system, lowering the buying energy of a forex and the worth of sure belongings. The identical paycheck covers much less items, companies, and payments. It is usually known as a “hidden tax,” because it leaves taxpayers much less well-off as a consequence of greater prices and “bracket creep,” whereas growing the federal government’s spending energy.
to keep away from bracket creepBracket creep happens when inflation pushes taxpayers into greater earnings tax brackets or reduces the worth of credit, deductions, and exemptions. Bracket creep leads to a rise in earnings taxes with out a rise in actual earnings. Many tax provisions—each on the federal and state degree—are adjusted for inflation.
. It additionally raised the fundamental tax credit scoreA tax credit score is a provision that reduces a taxpayer’s ultimate tax invoice, dollar-for-dollar. A tax credit score differs from deductions and exemptions, which cut back taxable earnings, fairly than the taxpayer’s tax invoice straight.
, baby tax credit score, and elevated the generosity of the non-public earnings tax measures to help massive households. Madrid might additional enhance by chopping the highest inheritance tax price from 34 % to 25 % and abolishing the issue that depends upon the extent of pre-inheritance wealth and familial closeness to the heir.

Basque Nation

The variations among the many three Basque provinces are pushed by the earnings element and the wealth tax element of the Index. On the wealth tax element, Guipzuzcoa ranks 13th, Alava 6th, and Biscay 5th. On the earnings tax element, Alava ranks 1st whereas Guipuzcoa and Biscay rank 2nd. In 2023, Biscay, Alava, and Guipuzcoa listed their earnings tax to inflation and raised the fundamental tax credit score and baby tax credit score. Though the three Basque provinces nonetheless occupy the second, third, and fourth positions, Alava launched a brand new tax credit score of as much as €200 for low and medium-income households that moved them forward of Biscay.

All three Basque provinces may benefit from reforming the inheritance tax as they’re tied for ninth place on this element of the Index. Moreover, Guipuzcoa might enhance by elevating the wealth tax threshold to the extent utilized in Biscay whereas lowering the tax price.


Andalusia improved its rating by 0.37 factors and moved from 7th to fiveth place within the 2023 Index. In 2023, Andalusia listed the primary two earnings tax bracketA tax bracket is the vary of incomes taxed at given charges, which usually differ relying on submitting standing. In a progressive particular person or company earnings tax system, charges rise as earnings will increase. There are seven federal particular person earnings tax brackets; the federal company earnings tax system is flat.
s to inflation and raised the fundamental tax credit score. Moreover, it authorised a one hundred pc reduction on the wealth tax. Andalusia might enhance its general place within the Index by lowering the variety of different regional taxes.

The 5 lowest-ranked areas on this 12 months’s Index are:

  1. Extremadura
  2. Aragon
  3. Asturias
  4. Valencia Neighborhood
  5. Catalonia

The areas with the worst general scores acquire low scores in nearly all of the parts of the Index and particularly within the three most necessary ones: earnings tax, wealth tax, and inheritance tax.


Regardless of repealing 4 regional taxes because of the implementation of a federal tax on waste disposal, Catalonia nonetheless has twice as many regional taxes in comparison with the remainder of the Spanish areas. Moreover, in 2023, a brand new wealth tax bracket for internet belongings exceeding €20 million was launched. Catalonia, which has a few of the worst-structured particular person earnings, inheritance, and wealth taxes, ranks final within the general Index.

Valencia Neighborhood

Valencia Neighborhood scores low in all of the parts of the Index and has a few of the most burdensome inheritance, wealth, switch taxes, and stamp duties in Spain. Moreover, Valencia’s general (central and regional) prime marginal earnings tax price stands at 54 %, the fourth highest in Europe after Denmark (55.9 %), France (55.4 %), and Austria (55 %). Moreover, in 2023, it authorised tax reforms that diminished its tax competitiveness. Whereas it initially diminished the minimal earnings tax price and listed the primary two earnings tax brackets to inflation, it later raised the earnings tax charges for incomes exceeding €52,000. Valencia Neighborhood additionally raised the highest marginal wealth tax price to three.75 %, which isn’t solely the very best prime wealth tax price in Spain but in addition on this planet.


Regardless of growing the generosity of the non-public earnings tax to help massive households, Asturias dropped from 16th to 17th place within the 2023 Index. Asturias would profit considerably from earnings and inheritance tax reform. Asturians have by far the very best inheritance tax legal responsibility among the many areas.


Aragon reformed the earnings tax and improved its general rank from 17th to 16th place. On the one hand, it elevated the utmost marginal earnings tax price by 0.5 factors; then again, it reduce the minimal tax price and the variety of tax brackets. Aragon has a number of shortcomings relating to earnings, inheritance, and wealth tax parts.


Extremadura has not undertaken any sort of reform this 12 months and remained in 15th place within the 2023 Index. After having reformed the inheritance tax in 2018, Extremadura ought to study reforms to the wealth and earnings taxes; it ranks 19th and 18th, respectively, on these parts of the Index.

Notable Rating Adjustments on this Yr’s Spanish Regional Tax Competitiveness Index

Eight different areas modified their positions within the Index from the 2022 version.


In 2023, Murcia accomplished a scheduled earnings tax reform launched in 2019 to chop the charges for all earnings tax brackets. Moreover, the earnings tax brackets for low-income households had been listed to inflation. The wealth tax exemptionA tax exemption excludes sure earnings, income, and even taxpayers from tax altogether. For instance, nonprofits that fulfill sure necessities are granted tax-exempt standing by the IRS, stopping them from having to pay earnings tax.
threshold was raised from €0.7 million to €3.7 million. Due to these reforms, Murcia improved 4 locations general, from 10th to sixth, within the 2023 Index.

Castilla-La Mancha and Cantabria

Castilla-La Mancha and Cantabria transfer up one place general to 11th and 12th within the general Index as a consequence of Navarre’s decline.

Canary Islands

Regardless of indexing the tax brackets to inflation for low-income households, the development of Andalusia and Murcia led the Canary Islands to drop three locations within the 2023 Index to eightth general.


Regardless of elevating the earnings tax threshold, Navarra dropped two locations within the 2023 Index to 13th place as this reform is narrower than an identical reform launched over 5 years in the past in all Spanish areas (apart from Navarre and Basque Nation’s provinces). Navarre additionally launched an extra wealth tax bracket with a marginal tax priceThe marginal tax price is the quantity of extra tax paid for each extra greenback earned as earnings. The common tax price is the entire tax paid divided by complete earnings earned. A ten % marginal tax price signifies that 10 cents of each subsequent greenback earned can be taken as tax.
of three.5 %.

Galicia, La Rioja, and Castille and Leon

In 2023, Galicia listed the earnings tax brackets to inflation and reduce the wealth tax. However, the development of Murcia led Galicia to drop one place within the 2023 Index to 9th general.

The development of Murcia and Andalusia additionally led La Rioja, in addition to Castille and Leon, to every drop one place to 7th and 10th place, respectively.

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